This discussion comes from the work Secrets of the World’s Best-Selling Writer, by Francis L. Fugate and Roberta B. Fugate, which describes the writing strategy of Erle Stanley Gardner through his novel writing phase of his long writing career.
The premise is that in writing the story from the protagonist’s point of view, the antagonist’s driving force is largely underdeveloped or developed just enough to only serve the author’s needs to propel the plot. The unstated problem is that this can lead to complexity and elaboration that does not serve the plot or the reading.
Where does complexity and elaboration come into this, and why is it a problem? These characteristics, which in any novel may be a qualities to hope for, often arrive unplanned in revisions and re-writes where clues and time-lines are backfilled in clumsily. The appearance of a forced ending is also evidence of this clumsiness.
How did Gardner solve this for himself? He codified antagonist character development programmatically in The Murderer’s Ladder. Writers should recognize this as a back-story for the villain. There are ten rungs on his ladder, the bottom-most is motivation. At some point in the development of the antagonist’s side of the story, they will climb this ladder rung by rung until they reach the commission of an act that cannot be undone, and would reveal the crime in progress. It is the point of no return. The villain is committed even if the crime has not been fully performed. Rather than describing the rungs fully (which I will do in succeeding posts), the following is the architecture where the entry point is at the bottom, with rung 1:
10. The necessity for eliminating the little overlooked clues and loose threads
9. The false suspect
8. The cover up
7. The flight
6. The actual killing
5. The first irretrievable step
4. The opportunity
3. The plan
For the writer who is seeing this for the first time: although you are preparing a rough story out of these ten rungs, your own novel may enter anywhere—probably at step six, or soon before or after.
Although what I have offered is generally the substance of the topic, The Murderer’s Ladder, that is posted across the web, for me it is insufficient. That said, I will embark upon posting an article for each rung to examine the intent of these ten key words and key phrases.